Tinctures are made by steeping, usually fresh, but occasionally dried herbal material in alcohol in order to extract the herb’s active constituents and then the final tincture is diluted down to a measure shown so a herb to liquid ratio is shown and alcohol by volume shown on each bottle and in its web listing.
Tinctures are best taken around mealtimes and mixed with water or fruit juice. Some can have a slightly bitter taste, and orange juice is particularly effective in masking this. Some natural settlement commonly occurs with certain tinctures: this is entirely harmless. If a clearer tincture is preferred, storing in a fridge can help to hold any sediment at the bottom and reduce flecking of the tincture taken. Adding tinctures to hot fluid reduces alcohol content, but its worth pointing out that the amount involved when taking tinctures is small.
Liquid Herbal Extracts are several times stronger than tinctures (where the ratio of herb to liquid is exactly equal)